Name __________________________________

Due Date _______________________________

EAS-100-51: Earth Science

  • 1. Orderly, logical plan of explaining natural phenomena by gathering and testing evidence. 
  • 3. Unlike religious dogma, scientific theories are subject to -------
  • 6. Meaning "forever unchanging" - something that doesn't apply to scientific theories. 
  • 10. A well-tested and supported hypothesis which can make predictions about phenomena. 
  • 12. To foretell the future. 
  • 13. The study of the natural universe. 
  • 18. The gathering of data using our own (or extensions of) our natural senses. 
  • 19. All that exists, in totality. 
  • 21. Unlike hearsay and folk wisdom, scientific theories are based upon actual happenings, or -----
  • 23. An inquiry into the causes of an event. 
  • 26. Determination of the validity of a hypothesis or theory. 
  • 27. "Catch-all" word for the universe (particularly on earth). 
  • 28. Naturally-occurring events. 



  • 1. Earth's main source of heat and light. 
  • 2. A test designed to prove or disprove a hypothesis or theory, using a controlled environment. 
  • 4. The earth sciences are called ---------- sciences in that the element of time is important. 
  • 5. The major reason for the rejection of science in the past (or even today). 
  • 7. Generalization about the behavior of nature (no known deviation after numerous experiments). 
  • 8. All theories are subject to ------- to determine their validity. 
  • 9. An initial explanation for natural phenomena, subject to further testing and observation. 
  • 11. A theory which unites many related subdisciplines or theories, i.e. plate tectonics. 
  • 14. In order to be predictable, nature must operate in a ----------- fashion. 
  • 15. Observations or facts which support a hypothesis or theory. 
  • 16. Another expression for scientific observations or information. 
  • 17. A prior understanding or way of thinking (a "given"). 
  • 19. Great scientific theories are praised for their ability to ----- different disciplines. 
  • 20. According to the Big Bang Theory, the Universe exploded from a cosmic ---
  • 22. A central assumption about the natural universe is that it works in a ------- and consistent manner. 
  • 24. A non-geologist's expression for a rock. 
  • 25. The most important element for the earth sciences is the ---- factor, required for most processes. 

Copyright © 1989 by William K. Tong

Date Due:_________________________


    • 1. The second most common element in the earth's crust; main constituent of quartz.
    • 6. Type of acid used in the lab to test for the presence of sulfide and carbonate minerals.
    • 9. Aquatic creature that lives inside a hinged shell made of calcium carbonate ("seashell").
    • 11. Element most common in the deep interior of the earth.
    • 13. The color of a powdered mineral.
    • 14. The most brilliant grade of non-metallic luster (for example, the luster of olivine).
    • 15. Type of irregular breakage in a mineral, indicating rather strong chemical bonds between the atoms. 
    • 16. Chemical compound that is detected by the odor or rotten eggs when in contact with acid.
    • 19. A fundamental substance which cannot be further subdivided without destroying its identity.
    • 21. A mixture of elements in which the relative proportions are consistently discrete.
    • 24. Metallic element with a relatively high density. 
    • 25. Major element of the mineral which makes up most limestones. 
    • 27. Chemical symbol for this element is "Na." 
    • 29. Most of the outer planets in the solar system are composed mostly of - - -. 
    • 31. Minerals which are common members of the layer silicates, characterized by basal cleavage.
    • 33. The major element which forms the base of organic compounds (can also form inorganic compounds). 
    • 34. Common radioactive element which contributes to the earth's interior heat. 

    • 35. A unit of an ordered solid, whose atoms are arranged in a repeating pattern.
    • 2. Compounds commonly identified by the release of carbon dioxide when acid is added.
    • 3. A type of luster which resembles that of broken glass.
    • 4. A measurement scale describing the resistance of minerals to being scratched. 
    • 5. A naturally occurring aggregate or mixture of one or more minerals.
    • 7. The presence of smooth, flat surfaces produced by breaking a mineral (indicates weak bonding).
    • 8. Type of luster which is never seen in transparent nor in translucent minerals. 
    • 10. Element which is found in mafic minerals. 
    • 12. Basal (1-directional) cleavage, typically shown by ---- sheets of minerals. 
    • 17. Earth's major source of external heat.
    • 18. The most common metallic element in the earth's crust. 
    • 20. Description for the inner planets of the solar system (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars). 
    • 22. Earth's most common element (most of it is not present as a gas, but as chemical compounds). 
    • 23. Chemical symbol for this element is "K." 
    • 26. The most common mineral form of silica. 
    • 28. Type of chemical compound of which rust is a member. 
    • 30. An atom which has acquired an electrical charge by losing or gaining one or more electrons.

    • 32. Very fine-grained layer silicate; common constituent of "mud."
    Copyright © 1989 by William K. Tong



    Due Date:________________________

    HOMEWORK No. 2

    • 5. Rocks typically formed at or near the surface of the earth. 
    • 6. The shape of sediment grains which indicates that it did not travel very far from the source.
    • 8. Type of rock which originates from the earth's interior, reaching the surface. 
    • 11. The volcanic equivalent of granite (i.e., has the same general mixture of minerals).
    • 12. Collective name for very fine-grained sediment, typically forming shales.
    • 13. Fossils such as those found in sedimentary rocks, are evidence of ancient - - - -. 
    • 16. The plutonic equivalent of basalt (same mineral composition, but with a texture due to slow cooling).
    • 18. Name of rock formed usually by the remains of ancient sea creatures.
    • 20. The main constituent of a good piece of sandstone.
    • 22. Naturally occurring, solid, inorganic substance having an internal atomic arrangement.
    • 23. Slow cooling of deeply buried molten rock produces crystals of this size. 
    • 26. The term used to describe the degree of uniformity of grain size in a sedimentary rock. 
    • 27. Minerals rearranged into this pattern, due to extreme pressure from regional metamorphism.
    • 28. Rock type made by heat and/or pressure great enough to alter a parent rock of any type.



    • 1. The most common igneous rock on earth; the volcanic equivalent of gabbro.
    • 2. Arkose sandstone is an example of a rock whose sediment formed - - - - the source. 
    • 3. Terminology which described minerals in igneous rocks which are high in iron and magnesium.
    • 4. Well-sorted sediment produced by much transport typically has this shape.
    • 7. Rapid cooling of molten rock at the earth's surface typically produces these size crystals. 
    • 9. The chief culprit for the decay of carbonate rocks used in urban public buildings (2 words).
    • 10. Metamorphic rock composed of a calcium carbonate mineral (usually does not weather well.) 
    • 14. Type of rock which originates in the molten state, deep within the earth.
    • 15. Metamorphic rock derived from shale, has a smooth texture that makes a good writing surface. 
    • 16. Felsic, plutonic igneous rock, whose interlocking crystals make it a great building stone. 
    • 17. Terminology describing igneous rocks which originate deep within the earth.
    • 19. Type of weak acid responsible for chemical weathering of rocks such as marble. 
    • 21. Very fine crystals (or the lack of crystals) is caused by this rate of cooling of molten rock.
    • 24. Earth's most common sedimentary rock; its abundance is explained by the large source of clay minerals.
    • 25. Molten rock which contains dissolved gases (trapped which still below ground). 

    • 26. The rate of cooling of magma determines only this property of the crystals in an igneous rock.

    Copyright © 1989 by William K. Tong



    Date Due:_________________________

    HOMEWORK No. 3

    • 1. When minerals become unstable in a new environment, they - - - - - - -.
    • 3. Term given to rock that will allow water to flow through it.
    • 6. Source of heat for geysers, hot springs, geothermal wells, etc.
    • 8. Term to describe rock that will not allow water to flow through it.
    • 11. Latin word for water.
    • 14. A zone in rock in which all the pore space is filled with water.
    • 15. Term which describes water that contains few dissolved minerals.
    • 16. Water that occupies the pore spaces within rock formations in the zone of saturation.
    • 18. Path that water takes from the ocean to clouds, to the land, and then back to the ocean (2 words).
    • 19. A funnel-shaped depression, dissolved from limestone rock.
    • 21. A structure in which water is forced upward by steam pressure. 
    • 22. An underground opening created by dissolving limestone.
    • 25. A well drilled into the zone of aeration (2 words).
    • 27. Icicle-like structure of calcium carbonate that hands from the roof of a cave.
    • 28. An icicle-like structure of calcium carbonate built up from the floor of a cave.
    • 29. Particle of sediment between 1/16 and 2 mm in diameter.
    • 1. Chemical reactions are accelerated in - - - - environments.
    • 2. A type of well that produces water under its own pressure, without pumping (2 words).
    • 4. The zone where air fills all of the possible pore spaces in the rock.
    • 5. Term used to describe water which contains a lot of dissolved minerals.
    • 7. A permeable rock formation which transmits and produces water.
    • 9. Dense evaporite mineral, used as an additive to drilling muds for drilling water wells.
    • 10. Fine-grained layer silicate minerals which swell up in water and cause lower permeability.
    • 12. The upper surface of the zone of saturation (2 words).
    • 13. Zone where water can enter the ground and fill an aquifer (2 "non-technical" words).
    • 16. The force that causes groundwater to move through the pores in rock.
    • 17. A structure in which heated water flows out onto the earth's surface (2 words).
    • 20. Common words for calcium carbonate.
    • 22. A lime structure created when a stalactite and stalagmite merge.
    • 23. Common term for quartz and chalcedony.
    • 24. Term which describes the dissolution of minerals by the passage of groundwater.
    • 26. A drill hole sunken into an aquifer for the purpose of extracting groundwater.

    Copyright © 1989 by William K. Tong



    Due Date:_________________________

    HOMEWORK No. 4

    • 3. Scratches or grooves in a bedrock surface, caused by the grinding action of a glacier and sediments.
    • 5. An amphitheater shaped basin at the head of a glaciated valley, made by frost wedging/plucking.
    • 7. A fan shaped accumulation of sediment caused by the slowing down of a river at a lake or sea.
    • 8. Finely textured glacial sediment produced by the grinding action of a glacier (2 words).
    • 11. A thick, flowing mass of ice made from compacted, recrystallized snow that originated on land.
    • 12. Main component of a glacier, which behaves as a flowing liquid when overlying weight is great.
    • 14. Type of stream valley which appears cut-off by the moving glacial ice sheet.
    • 15. Type of glacier confined to a mountain valley, which in most cases was once a stream valley.
    • 17. General term for any type of glacial deposit.
    • 18. Descriptive term which attributes the action of a large, flowing ice sheet.
    • 22. Ridges of glacial sediment left behind when the ice sheet melts.
    • 23. Fine-grained silt of glacial origin, made by wind erosion.
    • 24. A streamlined, asymmetrical hill composed of glacial till.
    • 26. Recrystallized snow, found in a glacier.
    • 27. Erosional feature caused by the seasonal melting of a glacier at the margin of the ice sheet.
    • 30. The epoch of geologic history which encompasses the last 4 ice ages.
    • 31. A pyramid-like peak formed by the glacial action of 3 or more cirques surrounding a mountain top.
    • 1. An "oddball" boulder that is not derived from the local bedrock, transported by glaciers.
    • 2. A poorly-sorted glacial deposit.
    • 4. A type of glacial mountain valley that has been widened, deepened, and straightened by the glacier.
    • 6. Type of glacial erosional feature which are holes made by lodged ice chunks that later melted.
    • 9. A deep crack in the brittle surface of a glacier.
    • 10. Another name for alpine glacier.
    • 13. A steep-sided inlet of the sea, formed when a glacial trough was partially submerged.
    • 15. The zone of the glacier where more snow falls than melts, and thereby causes glacial flow.
    • 16. Fine-grained sediment found in abundance in glacial deposits.
    • 19. Sediment that has a diameter from 2  to 1/16 millimeters, found in abundance in glacial deposits.
    • 20. The type of end moraine that marks the furthest advance of the glacier.
    • 21. Glacial ice that undergoes seasonal warming becomes - - - - - - - - -.
    • 25. Coarse-grained sediment commonly found in glacial deposits.
    • 28. The basic ingredient of a glacier.
    • 29. The slow movement of a glacier, caused by gravity.



    Copyright © 1989 by William K. Tong



    Due Date:_________________________

    HOMEWORK No. 5

    • 2. An igneous rock rich in the elements magnesium and iron (also called "ferromagnesian").
    • 5. A narrow, igneous intrusion that characteristically cuts across bedding planes and older rocks.
    • 7. Classification for a volcano that has erupted during the past, but has not been recently active.
    • 8. Generalized class of the ultramafic igneous rocks typical of the earth's mantle.
    • 11. The layer or zone of the lithosphere between the crust and the outer core.
    • 12. The most common type of volcanic rock.
    • 13. Fine and micro-fine volcanic particulates.
    • 15. Generalized term for aerially ejected volcanic debris.
    • 17. Magma which reaches the earth's surface, thereby losing volatile (gas) components.
    • 19. Lense-shaped igneous intrusion that commonly penetrates between bedding planes of older rock.
    • 23. A very hot cloud of incandescent volcanic ash that often moves down slope at great speed (2 words).
    • 25. A relatively stationary plume of hot mantle rock that produces volcanic chains such as Hawaii.
    • 26. Generalized term for a volcanic conduit located at the earth's surface.
    • 27. The collapsed crater of an extinct volcano.
    • 29. The driving force for volcanism is the flow of the earth's internal - - - -.
    • 30. A volcanic rock produced by the mixture of felsic and mafic rocks at a convergent plate boundary.



    • 1. A zone inside the earth showing a change in the speed of seismic waves, due to change in rock types.
    • 3. A bowl-shaped topographic depression; may be an erosional remnant of an extinct volcano.
    • 4. Typical shape of a basalt volcano, produced by the relatively fluid lava.
    • 5. Typical shape of volcanoes of felsic or andesitic composition.
    • 6. A volcano that is unlikely to erupt again, evidenced by erosion of its structure.
    • 8. Braided, rope-shaped lava characteristic of basalt volcanoes (a Hawaiian word).
    • 9. The type of volcanic feature produced by undersea volcanism at divergent plate boundaries.
    • 10. The abundance of this mineral in lava usually produces violent, explosive volcanic eruptions.
    • 11. Molten rock that originates from the earth's mantle, rising upwards due to lower density.
    • 12. A very large body of igneous rock located deep underground (sometimes called a pluton).
    • 14. A type of igneous intrusion that cuts horizontally through older rock.
    • 16. Felsic volcanic rock that has the same general mineral content as a granite.
    • 18. Description of a steam explosion of a a volcanic cone, caused by seawater mixing with lava.
    • 20. The shape of a volcano composed largely of cinders.
    • 21. A flow or avalanche of boiling mud, caused by the melting of snow by the eruption of hot volcanic ash.
    • 22. Classification of any volcano that has erupted within the human historical record.
    • 24. A volatile gas such as hydrogen sulfide is easily detected because it _ _ _ _ _ _ .
    • 28. Blocky, jagged, clinkery lava (Hawaiian word).
    Copyright © 1989 by William K. Tong

    Due Date:_________________________

    HOMEWORK No. 6

    • 1. Seismic sea wave caused by deep sea landslide; incorrectly called "tidal wave."
    • 5. Breaking point of rock, which releases seismic energy.
    • 7. Type of seismic wave which travels at a relatively slow speed.
    • 9. Vibration of the earth, produced by the sudden slippage along a fault, releasing energy.
    • 11. The layer of the earth between the crust and the core.
    • 13. Small seismic tremors preceding a large tremor.
    • 17. Name of a scale designed to measure earthquake magnitude.
    • 19. Type of seismic wave which travels fastest.
    • 20. While earthquakes may be measured at the surface, they always occur somewhere - - - - - - the earth.
    • 23. An indication of the destructive effects of an earthquake at a particular place.
    • 24. The rigid outer layer of the earth, including the crust and the outer mantle. 



    • 2. Mass wasting which moves down slope in a fairly coherent manner, along a defined surface.
    • 3. Measurement scale used for classifying the degree of earthquake damage.
    • 4. Large fractures in the earth's crust along which there is movement.
    • 6. Theory whereby rocks along a fault zone behave like springs (2 words).
    • 7. The science of earthquakes.
    • 8. The point at the earth's surface where an earthquake is felt most intensely.
    • 10. Small earthquakes which follow a major tremor.
    • 12. The total amount of energy released during an earthquake.
    • 14. Type of seismic wave which cannot pass through liquids.
    • 15. Mechanically traced record of an earthquake.
    • 16. Elastic energy which, when stored up in rocks along a fault zone, will deform the rock.
    • 18. The outer, relatively thin rock layer of the earth.
    • 21. This type of material causes the speed of all types of earthquake waves to increase.
    • 22. The point within the crust where the earthquake actually occurs.
    Copyright © 1989 by William K. Tong



    Due Date:_________________________

    HOMEWORK No. 7

    • 3. Zone of the earth made of mostly iron and nickel.
    • 4. The "true" ocean floor, together covering 60% of the earth's surface (2 words).
    • 6. The process by which heat is circulated in a fluid.
    • 7. The rigid sections of the crust which move relative to each other.
    • 8. A zone in the earth located at great depth, created by the collision of 2 plates.
    • 12. Molten rock which reaches the earth's surface.
    • 13. The process which explains the history of the Atlantic Ocean, as well as complex oceanic features.
    • 16. The type of rock of which the ocean floor is made.
    • 17. The zone in the earth's interior below the crust, but above the core, made up of sense silicates.
    • 19. Continental - - - - - was an earlier theory seeking to prove that land masses moved over time.
    • 20. The type of rock typical of island arcs (hint: volcanic)
    • 21. The type of rock which makes up continental crust. 



    • 1. The deepest part of the ocean is a trench called the -------.
    • 2. The Philippines and Japan are good examples of this tectonic feature (2 words).
    • 3. That part of the lithosphere not covered by water.
    • 5. This process explains evidence that the earth's magnetic poles changed in direction over time.
    • 6. The relatively thin (10-25 miles thick) outer shell of the earth.
    • 9. This tectonic feature occurs where a ridge is offset laterally by major transform faults.
    • 10. An example of a strike-slip fault in North America (Hint: located in California; earthquake zone).
    • 11. Tectonic feature created at divergent zones by undersea volcanism; forms mountain chains.
    • 14. - - - - - - - focus earthquakes occur at mid-ocean ridges.
    • 15. Nearly all of these types of earthquakes occur in volcanic island arcs (2 words).
    • 16. The major discontinuity between the crust and mantle may be considered to be a - - - - - - - -.
    • 17. The common, shortened name for the discontinuity between the crust and the mantle.
    • 18. The major component of the earth's core.
    Copyright © 1989 by William K. Tong



    Due Date:_________________________
    HOMEWORK No. 8

    • 4. Time required for half  of a given amount of parent radioisotope to decay into a daughter isotope. 
    • 7. The era of ancient life. 
    • 8. Common expression for past periods of prolonged continental glaciation. 
    • 9. Concept that explained Earth's geology as the work of short-term (often supernatural) events. 
    • 11. A creationist's estimate of the earth's age would be a relatively - - - number of years. 
    • 13. Evidence of a period of erosion, as seen in outcrops, of as a wavy line in a geologic events column. 
    • 16. Concept assuming that earth processes at work today had always operated during the earth's past, as well. 
    • 19. Due to a hostile environment on land during the geologic past, life probably originated at - - -
    • 20. The remains or traces of ancient life, generally dated at 10,000 or more years old. 
    • 21. Geochronologists specialize in determining this property in geologic materials. 
    • 22. A fossil particularly good for correlating outcrops between different areas. 
    • 24. The Pennsylvanian Period was known as the Age of - - - -. 
    • 27. To establish the equivalence of rocks of similar ages between different localities. 
    • 29. The determination of the absolute age of a rock or fossil is known as - - - - - -. 
    • 30. A word used to describe a past or present species of life that no longer exists. 
    • 31. The Tertiary Period saw the development of a large species of saber-toothed - - -
    • 32. Ectothermic animals have a body temperature that reflects their environment; meaning they are - - - - blooded. 
    • 33. Old dinosaur movies used to end with a big earthquake and the explosion of a - - - - - -. 
    • 34. The geological period during which hard skeletal parts first evolved, allowing preservation of fossils. 
    • 1. The Tertiary and Quaternary Periods are subdivided into a shorter time unit called the - - - - -. 
    • 2. Due to metamorphism, fossils that would be found in a shale would not be found in a - - - - -. 
    • 3. From ancient Greek, the word for "terrible" as in "terrible lizards" (Mesozoic land reptiles). 
    • 4. Due to gravity, all sedimentary rocks were originally oriented in the - - - - - - - - - - position. 
    • 5. A rare example of complete fossil preservation is the woolly mammoth found trapped inside - - -. 
    • 6. If you found the - - - of a dinosaur, it would be one of the most rare and valuable fossils. 
    • 10. Parallel layers of sedimentary rock. 
    • 12. Endothermic animals maintain a constant body temperature, and are known as - - - - blooded. 
    • 14. The principle of ------------  relationships says "the cutter is older than the cuttee." (2 words) 
    • 15. The study of ancient life. 
    • 17. A type of absolute age determination that compares parent and daughter isotopes. 
    • 18. The law of ------------- says that the rocks on the bottom are older than the rocks on the top. 
    • 23. The largest unit of time on the geologic time scale. 
    • 25. Major extinctions of life have been caused by climatic changes due to global - - - - - movements. 
    • 26. The use of radiometric dating would produce a relatively - - - - number for the age of the earth. 
    • 28. A column of rocks in the field, exposed by erosion, representing a sequence of geologic events. 
    • 29. Scientific information, usually gathered by observation or experimentation. 
    Copyright © 1989 by William K. Tong

    Due Date:___________________________
    HOMEWORK No. 9
    • 1. Far below the surface of the sea, generally by thousands of feet (2 words)
    • 6. Small points of land projecting into a body of water from the shore. 
    • 8. An element that often combines with metals to form important ore minerals near hydrothermal vents. 
    • 9. A compound that contains the element represented by the chemical symbol "S." 
    • 12. The planet Earth is unique in having an unusual abundance of this compound in liquid form. 
    • 15. The celestial body whose gravity is responsible for periodic tides seen in bodies of water. 
    • 16. An ocean carbonate rock formation made up of billions of tiny skeletons of sea creatures. 
    • 17. Periodic rising and falling of water levels, caused by the pull of gravity of celestial bodies. 
    • 18. An underwater mountain or volcanic cone, whose top has been flattened by wave erosion. 
    • 21. An extension of the perimeter of the continent, made up of sediments. (2 words) 
    • 24. Undersea hydrothermal vent that precipitates a dark cloud of metallic minerals. (2 words) 
    • 26. A rhythmic displacement of water, caused by the movement of energy through the water. 
    • 27. Temperature condition oat the mid-ocean ridges. 
    • 29. Type of sediment stratification where grain size gradually changes. (2 words) 
    • 31. Water that contains a high concentration of dissolved minerals is said to be ----
    • 33. Winds that move surface water away from the shore often cause this cold, deep water to move upwards. 
    • 34. Large streams of ocean water, moving continuously in about the same paths.

    • 1. The movement of sea, ice, or vessels, caused by ocean currents or winds. 
    • 2. To obtain nourishment by ingestion of food. 
    • 3. A triangular-shaped deposit of sediments found at the mouth of a river where it meets the ocean. 
    • 4. A curious type of large, red worm that lives on the ocean floor near mid-ocean ridges. 
    • 5. A type of density current that moves along the bottom slope of a body of standing water. 
    • 6. A large submarine mountain that rises thousands of feet above the ocean floor. 
    • 7. A large body of salt water that is smaller than an ocean. 
    • 10. Sodium chloride. 
    • 11. Type of potato-shaped mineral deposit containing low grade ore, mined from the ocean floor. (2 words) 
    • 13. A long narrow depression of the deep sea floor, having relatively steep sides. 
    • 14. A severe weather pattern that stops ----- of 75 m.p.h. wind speed is a tropical storm. 
    • 19. Measure of the amount of dissolved salt in the ocean. 
    • 20. --- tide is marked by coastal water levels at their minimum. 
    • 22. The earth's surface ---- is about 72% ocean. 
    • 23. The relatively flat, smooth ocean floor is known as the ------- plain. 
    • 25. A ring-like island, or island encircling a lagoon, generally composed of coral. 
    • 26. The driving force behind the ocean waves. 
    • 27. ---- tide is marked by coastal waters at their maximum level. 
    • 28. Oceanographers may study the chemical content of sea water by taking a ------
    • 30. To release. 
    • 32. Preferential movement of objects that are denser than water. 

    Copyright © 1989 by William K. Tong

    Due Date:___________________________

    HOMEWORK No. 10A

    This assignment contains 2 crosswords, which must be
    completed together, and counts as ONE assignment.

    Puzzle 10A:

    Clues for Puzzle 10A:
    3. Measure of the average kinetic (motion) energy of matter, in terms of heat.

    4. Precipitation in the form of small, clear-to-translucent particles of ice.

    6. A cloud which is at or near the surface of the earth. 

    10. Prefix meaning "middle" altitude.

    11. General term for the formation of liquid water from water vapor.

    13. The short-term state of the atmosphere at a particular place.

    16. The ultimate source of most of the earth's heat, and thus its weather.

    18. Altitude at which most stratus clouds are found.

    19. Puffy, billowy clouds

    20. Altitude at which cirrus clouds are found

    21. Measure of the amount of water vapor that the air can hold at a given temperature.

    23. Layered clouds which often cover the entire sky. 

    1. Phenomenon whereby pure water may be cooled far below 0 degrees Celsius without freezing. 2. The envelope of gases which are held by the earth's gravity.

    5. Altitude at which cumulus clouds develop.

    7. Freezing rain; forms slick coat of ice on the ground. 

    8. The aggregate or composite of weather over a long period of time.

    9. Wispy, feathery clouds composed of ice crystals.

    12. Term used to describe how much an object reflects sunlight (in terms of percent).

    13. The season during which the angle of sunlight is lowest with respect to the earth's surface.

    14. Device which directly measures relative humidity; commonly uses fibers which change length.

    15. Term used to describe any type of rain cloud.

    17. Heat energy released when water changes its state.

    20. Precipitation in the form of hard, rounded pellets, or irregular clumps of ice.

    22. Frozen water. 

    Copyright © 1989 by William K. Tong

    Due Date:___________________________

    HOMEWORK No. 10B

    Assignment #10 contains 2 crosswords, which must be
    completed together, and counts as ONE assignment. 

    Puzzle 10B:
    Puzzle 10B Clues
    3. Apparent deflection of an object due to the Earth's rotation.

    6. Forthcoming weather may be predicted by noting the ---- ----(2 words).

    8. Basic unit of atmospheric pressure

    11. Another name for high pressure centers.

    16. What a barometer measures.

    18. On a weather map the spacing of the isobars indicates the ---- ---- (2 words) over a given distance.


    1. Type of pressure system generally associated with bad weather.

    2. Upper air wind which blow parallel to the isobars on a map.

    3. A dry wind which originates in the Rocky Mountains; name means "snow eater."

    4. Violent electrical storm, producing audible rumbling caused by rapid heating of air.

    5. Part of a hurricane where the winds and rain are most intense.

    6. Instrument which measures atmospheric pressure.

    7. Fast-moving "rivers" of air which move at 75 to 150 miles per hour in the upper atmosphere.

    9. Here, the altitude is defined as "zero."

    10. Violent wind storm characterized by a rapidly rotating funnel cloud.

    12. Centers of low pressure.

    13. A hurricane which "slows down" its wind speeds to 38 to 74 miles per hour is reclassified as a tropical -----.

    14. Lines which connect points of equal pressure on a weather map.

    15. The boundary between 2 adjoining air masses having contrasting characteristics.

    17. The calm center of a hurricane. 

    Copyright © 1989 by William K. Tong